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Aether and superstring

Aether and superstring



Even ancient Greek scientists felt that Outer Space could not be empty. Despite the incorrect naming (vacuum), it must be filled with some material. They thought this was material above a mythical atmosphere. The Latins called this aether or ether. Its existence in the pre-20th century was absolutely trivial for all physicists and naturalists. The important role of this entity would have remained if Einstein and his theory of relativity had not come. He stated that the vacuum must necessarily be empty because that is the only way his theory works. He said his theory needs space, but he doesn’t need filler material. Although he later realized (BBC, 1923) that ether is essential to the construction of the world and must be brought back into physics. But then he also realized that the theory he had recently set up was incompatible with ether, so he stayed in the empty vacuum. Today’s physicists say the vacuum isn’t completely empty, there’s something in it. An empty vacuum, as well as a semi-empty vacuum, is a misconception, in fact, a vacuum is a very dense liquid. As we will see, the latter version can provide appropriate and even highly logical solutions to a large number of unsolved requests in today’s physics. This means a change of attitude and a paradigm shift, and physics is on a new footing.


The Dirac Sea


There have been many signs in the history of physics, there have been many indications that the vacuum is not empty but is filled with some unknown and invisible matter. Around 1940, Paul Dirac, a former leading physicist in science, came up with the idea that Outer Space is filled to the brim with electrically charged but imperceptible virtual particles. These are called the virtual electron and the virtual positron, which are numerically in equilibrium and arranged in pairs.


Figure 1: The Dirac Sea


Aether has extreme properties because it is invisible, impalpable, and massless. As we will see, it is actually considered a very dense liquid. It would be logical to give it a dense vacuum name, but perhaps it would be more ethical to call it a traditional aether This is the name given to this wonderful entity by ancient natural philosophers and later by classical physicists. The structure of the dense aether was first tried to edit by Michel Araday. He imagined pins and rollers densely next to each other, where the turning of pins was transmitted by the rollers to more distant areas. Unfortunately, this system is not able to model the complex behavior of the ether, not in a plane, and certainly not in space. It is highly probable that the aether is not a static fluid but a dynamic fluid, i.e. it is in internal motion and in a dynamic internal balance of forces and energy. As we shall see, its properties are difficult to detect, but they are very unexpected, one might say astonishing. Let's review the main characteristics of the dense vacuum, the aether.


The aether is invisible 

Invisibility is a habitual thing, as air and water are invisible. Only the dirt is visible in these However, the attentive observer may notice that distant objects are more blurred. So clean air and water absorb light rays, albeit to a small extent. He swallows, but he does not mediate, he only passes on himself Not only does the aether not absorb light, it actually transmits it. There are theoretical constructions that try to explain a beam of light traveling at a constant speed without an intermediating medium. These attempts seem weak and even nonsense, both scientifically and technically. 

   At the beginning of the last century, astronomers were still convinced that the vacuum was completely transparent and free of dirt. However, they turned out to be wrong because the dust and gas clouds in outer space strongly attenuate the light from distant stars and galaxies, greatly modifying previous distance estimates. The aether is therefore similar in this respect to the invisible media we are used to, the air and water already mentioned, i.e, space also contains light-absorbing pollutants.


Aether is superfluid 

The phenomenon of superfluidity also occurs in the world of fermions, that is, in our material world. Here, for example, is 2He3 helium, which is a superfluid near absolute zero. It shows no friction and no fluid resistance for objects moving in it. Small objects do not break into them. Bosons well known in theoretical physics are also superfluid, just like the aether sea. Material bodies are not inhibited in the latter media either.


Aether Physical Parameters 

Many physical properties of vacuum have been measured by physicists as early as the period of classical physics, the 19th century, and the early 20th century. Then the more precise tests and measurements continued, despite the majority opinion that the vacuum was already empty. However, seeing the very accurate numbers, there was some (a little) change of attitude. The complete emptiness has been replaced by the half-full version, the compromise claim that the vacuum is not completely empty, but there is a different thing in it. The logical conclusion is that the vacuum is “full to the brim,” a proof we will make later. In the meantime, let's look at some of the more important parameters of ether according to the CODATA data:



   Some of the data in the table are so-called basic data (measured data). Other parts of it are derived data, which we know how to calculate from the basic data. However, this division is rather formal, because nature knows the order of importance much better than we do. Let us consider as derived data: 



The energy of the vacuum.

The internal energy of the vacuum is estimated at 1010 to 10111 joules / m3 by estimates and more modern calculations. This is because the energy of the vibration frequencies must be summed from 0 to infinity, for the up harmonics last indefinitely. Fortunately, the vacuum is located in an energy pit and only passes into a deeper energy pit under special effects. Such a special effect is given, for example, by the electrons orbiting the atom, which continuously radiate energy due to acceleration. It is not a problem for the ether to replenish this spread energy. The situation is similar inside the nucleons that make up the nucleus, where spinning the valence quarks requires even more energy. Their dissipated energy is easily and directly replaced by a vacuum. This is because the vacuum is in every subatomic particle. It is probable that the vacuum gives the energy to the photons and of course, it also determines the speed of the light beam:


Extreme Density of Ether 

There is a natural phenomenon whose power is apparently not justified by anything. Such is the case with cavitation, which at first appears like an innocuous steam bubble, but then collapses with a huge click instead of a small burst. An example of the force of a vacuum is the Overspeed propeller, from which cavitation can continuously rip metal pieces. (The propeller may “run out.”) An example is the effortlessly floating, seemingly weightless little ball of light, the spherical lightning. This can be very forceful at times. You can press down on the observer's head, smash a church door, or shred a large oak tree into shavings. All these forces and energies come out of the vacuum.


The superstring sea 

or 

vibrating strings in the ether



The most up-to-date theory of the universe, working with the largest mathematical apparatus ever, is the so-called string theory. The whole thing started with Eric von Heisenberg in the 1940s and by researching his S-matrix. This became the superstring theory by 1986, following the sweaty work of many hundreds of mathematicians and physicists. The theory, previously consisting of 5 versions, was combined by M. Green and J. Schwartz into a single unified theory called superstring theory. this distinguished theory became impeccable both mathematically and logically. In fact, any further rejection is unjustified, but unfortunately, there are still few who have embraced it. The main reason for the reluctance is that his math is too high and that it is based on simple mechanical motion. This is actually a step back from the approach to classical mechanics, which may seem outdated. The third reason is that the theory still lacks practical support. (There is no doubt before me that support will be forthcoming.)


   The essence of string theory, then, is that the vacuum, that is, the Universe, is filled with tiny vibrating strings. An unexpected and at the same time surprisingly positive turn in the history of science is that scientists are moving towards a deeper level not in mathematical points or balls, but in a complex shapes. Breaking with the false tradition, this change of direction promises additional opportunities in itself. Incidentally, the Nobel Prize-winning Russian physicist Sakharov believed that the world was much deeper and more complex toward small dimensions than upward to infinite space. Mathematical points can be much, much deeper than we know today.


   Superstrings (in simple terms, strings) have been vibrating continuously since they were born, just like the strings of musical instruments. Their size is limited, according to string theory theorists, they are about 10-34 meters long. Referring back to the Dirac Sea, suppose the strings are composed alternately of virtual electrons and positrons, and the electrostatic attraction unites them into extremely strong fibers. The 50-50 percent proportion of particles is also consistent with the Dirac hypothesis as well as experience, as the vacuum is electrically neutral. For this reason, even the strong vibrating movement cannot shake the yarn, i.e. the strings.


 Figure 2: The inserted electric charge sets the strings in the right direction


It is important to note that superstrings are not able to lose their initial high kinetic energy. A string may try to transfer a fraction of its energy to its neighbor mechanically, but it has the same amount. If it is taken over by the neighbor, it will be passed on or returned sooner or later. A homogeneous state of energy develops that is valid for billions of kilometers. However, it is possible that the virtual electrons and positrons that make up the string also emit electromagnetic energy. In this case, near and far neighbors first swallow this extra energy, but sooner or later get rid of it and radiate it back. In the latter process, we must assume that there are other particles in the vacuum that can transmit electromagnetic waves. The total energy of the superstrings can thus be considered unchanged in space and time.


Coffee Grinder 

Let's look at a common example of the slicing process. If we pour coffee beans into the pot of the coffee grinder and turn on the electric motor, the rotating knives will hit and cut the coffee beans hard First the knives cut the coffee beans in halves, then in quarters, and then in eighths. However, the smaller the grains, the less likely they are to be hit by knives. The remaining larger grains are more likely to get in the way of the knives due to their size so that the end result of the process is fairly even and very small particle size. Now, however, think of special coffee beans that stick together over and over again in the process, thus growing in size. Of course, the larger grains are more likely to be cut again by the knives. It is obvious that over time the equilibrium between the process of clumping and the cutting is established and a homogeneous, almost uniform particle size is obtained.


 Fragmentation of strings

According to string theory, strings are nearly the same size. What could have been the processes that created this sizing? Initially, the strings themselves were the culprits, because they themselves cut up the long copies. As their length increases over and over again, the shorter strings continuously perform further cutting. Obviously, it happens sometimes that the cutting goes too well and the parts become too short. But at the same time, a merging process takes place, as the string ends are attracted to each other due to their electrical charge. Sooner or later, a dynamic equilibrium is established between the processes in the opposite direction, i.e. each string assumes an average size.


String Shapes 

The ends of strings can stick together in opposite polarities, increasing to multiple lengths. They often form a circular shape, with the end of the string sticking to the center of the thread. These shapes also vibrate, rotate, and sometimes act as a cutting knife. Interestingly, the modern version of string theory considers the occurrence of hoops rather than strings to be more likely. (Figure 2)


Vibration energies 

Let us form an average-sized string in our mind and accept that its length is 10-34 meters, as the superstring theory assumes. Think of a small model that consists of a short, thin string of string with 20 small virtual balls on it. The ball array consists of 10 virtual electrons and 10 virtual positrons alternating. This string vibrates, for example, in the shapes shown in Figures 1a, 1b, and 1c. Shape A is a fluttering half-wave, the others are up harmonics. These are double, triple, quadruple, and so on. frequency waves. The series goes all the way to infinity (close to infinity?). These up harmonics share the energy in equal proportions. In the calculation, the energies must be summed to infinity (almost infinity?), So the energy of each string is nearly infinite. This reasoning strongly suggests the extremely high, near-infinite energy level of the aether referred to earlier.


Figure 3: Vibration of strings


Flexibility and inertia 

In everyday life, vibrating strings can be imagined by attaching beads to an elastic rubber thread or a thin steel string. The latter represents the helpless mass, while the elastic fiber gives the restoring force. After bulging out, the elastic string starts backward, straightens for a moment, and then bulges out on the other side due to inertia. Let's first consider superstrings as such a mechanism. 

   Let us now try to find the cause of the elasticity of the fiber and the origin of the inertia of the beads. When the string bends, the same alternating charges on the inside move closer together, thereby repelling each other more strongly This extra forces the bent beads back to the straight axis at high speed. But what moves the system beyond a neutral position? After all, the ether, the superstrings, including the beads, are known to have no helpless mass. Perhaps the phenomenon of inertia stems from the limited rate of propagation of electrical effects (speed of light?). 

   The vibrations at the strings are very fast, and the infinite electrostatic lines of force are unable to close without delay. At the bottom, the lines of force still repel each other, while at the top they do not yet meet, so they do not resist further rotation. Therefore, moving, reversible particles do not lose their speed over time, they move too much. The delayed electrical effect is that which allows the particles to cross the neutral line. As a result of the overindulgence, the extra repulsive force is then generated and the movement stops when it reaches the upper dead center. Then a new vibration cycle begins. In this way, two basic conditions for the internal vibration of the strings, flexibility and simulated inertial mass, are produced. Without friction, the superstring will vibrate forever.



Internal forces in the string 

In connection with the strings, let us also consider some more complex cases. Reduced coupling force occurs when the end of one string tries to connect to the waist of the other string. This shape is expected to be short-lived because, in addition to the attractive force, repulsive forces also occur. In principle, it can also be a string variant consisting of an odd number of particles that contains an odd number of charges rather than an even number. Of course, in this case, the two ends of the string have the same charge. In this case, the ends electrostatically repel each other with a force of 1040 newtons. The enormous force is not surprising, because after all, two identical charges are very close to each other. But it does not tear the fiber because the attraction between the inner particles is even greater. So don't be surprised by the extremely high-frequency vibrations that occur, as the return forces are also extremely large.


Additional Virtual Particles 

The ether constituents discussed so far — virtual electrons and positrons — have a unit charge. However, the charge of the quarks is 1/3 or 2/3. It is clear that these cannot be unloaded from a combination of unit charges. There must therefore be additional particles in the ether that have a fractional charge. In addition to Dirac pairs or superstrings, they are certainly involved in the formation of electrical and magnetic power lines. In the figures, these should have been indicated by colored dots and lines. Obviously, these particles do not have mass or externally detectable energy, as does the complete ether liquid.


Superstring material? 

Developers working on string theory assume that strings of different lengths and vibration patterns represent different subatomic particles. For a number of reasons, I do not consider this possible myself, because the strings are too simple in structure and their vibration amplitude and number vary. Let's simplify the question, "Electron, but from what?" It could be from a virtual electron since it also has a unit of electric charge, but it has no mass. Thus, a material mass of about 0.5 MeV is missing. So we need some more material building stone that has not yet shown itself.


Vortices in the String Sea 

Scientists have suspected from the beginning that there are small but powerful eddies in the ether. The above overview of the etheric sea almost confirms this hypothesis, with its highly oscillating and flapping strings whose charges induce rapidly changing electric and magnetic fields. The motion and force fields act on neighbors in complex ways and even in deflecting directions, while they push back. In the aether, the situation is overly complicated and allows, almost requires, the creation of vortices. The modern evidence of vortices is the so-called spin that each particle of matter receives from the aether, which is a very precisely defined quantity: S0 = 53*10-36 kgm2/s. Unfortunately, this meaningful physical quantity is nowadays denoted by physicists with the vague number ½. So the strings are not only swirling inside the nucleons - perhaps due to the orbiting quarks - but also in the ether sea that fills the Universe. But this swirling motion is not directly observable because the size of the vortices is too small compared to the macro-world. The idea of vorticity was already in the minds of medieval natural philosophers, but obviously on logical rather than experimental grounds.


The speed of light 

Photons also make a swirling. Both the speed of the swirling motion and the speed of the forward g motion as they travel forward. Motion has a value of c, so the photon is actually traveling at a spatial speed of 1.41 c.  The speed of travel (denoted by c) is equal to the speed of rotation. Thus, contrary to our previous conjecture, the ether sets the speed of rotation of the photon to c, while the speed of travel is derived from this. Since the spin of a photon has twice its value, we have to think that a photon is made up of two identical spheres orbiting each other. The latter assumption is confirmed by the so-called two-way photon experiment in which bisected photons are examined and eventually join or not.


Can the particle be stopped? 

Let's look at the case of the best-known particle, the electron. This hydrogen atom forms the outer shell and orbits there at a radius of 53,000 fm at 2.6% of the speed of light. Now let's try to stick it in the mind to the nucleus, that is, to the surface of a proton with a radius of 0.88 fm. As we push inward and thus narrow our range of motion, it accelerates to an ever-increasing speed and prepares us to pick up 220 times the speed of light. In reality, the speed of an electron cannot exceed the speed of light, instead, its mass increases 220-fold because that is the only way to keep the strictly defined spin value. To generalize the example, we must say that in nature no particle can remain stationary. You have to circulate to fulfill the law of spin. The lower the mass of the particle, the higher the velocity or orbital radius it must assume


Accelerating development, increasing contradictions


Development is accelerating rapidly and even exponentially in all disciplines, including physics. More and more measurement data, theories, and the philosophies that connect them are piling on top of each other. As time goes on, the problem becomes more serious that the parts are contradictory and fail to standardize. This is a warning sign that the old foundations and perspectives are wrong, so a whole new approach and philosophy must be introduced as soon as possible to eliminate contradictions.


   In sciences, this fundamental shift is called a paradigm shift. The most serious of the many hidden false dogmas and dead ends is the idea of an empty vacuum. This is the ominous point, here you have to switch to a dense vacuum, and then the current crucible problems are solved one by one. The path of physical progress is almost always bumpy for up to a decade.


2019 02 02   

             

In the case of an empty vacuum, no coherent picture of the natural world can be formed, but even with the former dense vacuum, modern physics, currently floating in nothingness, has a securely fixed basis.

       

  A paradigm shift in physics - now!  


Tom Tushey 

Mechanical engineer 

Hobby physicist 

Scientific Writer

Relativity-expert

reactivated-aether@c2.hu